Speech is be older than we thought

The theory of the “descent of the larynx” has advanced for 50 years that the low position of the larynx of the human ( Homo sapiens ) is necessary to produce differentiated vowels, and that this capacity necessary for the appearance of speech would have appeared about 75,000 years ago, in its development.

This idea suggested that monkeys, whose anatomy of the vocal tract is very similar to that of humans, but whose larynx is higher, cannot produce differentiated vocalizations because of this latter characteristic.

You should know that humans are the only monkey that has a communication system which, by combining a small number of sound units (vowels and consonants), allows to generate an infinity of statements carrying meaning.

An anatomical lock

In the years 1930-1950, experiments carried out with chimpanzees raised in human families had not enabled them to learn to speak, as one generally does with children. In order to explain this reality, researcher Philip Lieberman had proposed in 1969 the theory of the descent of the larynx, an anatomical lock making spoken communication impossible. Despite some criticisms, this explanation had been widely accepted by a majority of primatologists.

The work of a French team, with the collaboration of Quebec researchers from the University of Quebec’s Phonetics Laboratory, today shows that monkeys are capable of producing well-differentiated protovoyelles.

A reality which contradicts the initial theory and which shows, taking into account the acoustic cavities formed by the tongue, the mandible and the lips, that the production of differentiated vocalizations is not an anatomical question, but that it would rather be linked to control the articulators.

This new knowledge suggests that the ability to speak was born earlier in the evolution of Homo sapiens, well beyond 200,000 years ago, the time of the appearance of the species.

In fact, scientists can even envision an emergence of speech that dates back to 20 million years ago, when our common ancestor lived with monkeys, who probably had the capacity to produce contrasted vocalizations.

The details of this work are published in the journal Science Advances.

A Pay What You Want Deal for Microsoft Office 2019 Courses is On​

A new ‘Pay What You Want’ deal you might want to acquire is available for five online courses incorporating a 74-hour bundle. The great deal has a limited time, and it teaches you how to use Microsoft Office 2019.

The courses will teach you basic and also advanced information on the best way to use the popular Microsoft bundle that includes Word, Excel, Office, PowerPoint, and so on. You can become a Pro in using the world’s leading Office software by purchasing this great deal.

What’s The Deal About

This deal has a mixed value of $250, but with the Pay What You Want bundles, you can get this incredible deal for as little as you want to pay. You will also be able to get all of the courses by winning over the average price of the pack and receive a fully upgraded version of the set.

If you pay the total value of $250, you will get to enter the StackCommerce leaderboard and will have access to various bonuses, such as entries into numerous giveaways, and more benefits. Exam vouchers are not included, though.

Bundled Courses

Here are the bundled courses the deal offers, which you can purchase with the Pay What You Want.

  • Microsoft Excel Course
  • Advanced Microsoft Excel Course
  • Microsoft PowerPoint Course
  • Microsoft Outlook Course
  • Microsoft Word Course

Pay What You Want, even as little as $1 for the Microsoft Word Course, an unlocked item that helps you get familiar with the world’s premiere Word processor.

The Microsoft Excel Course and the Advanced Microsoft​ Excel Course along with the rest of the courses we are going to further detail can be purchased if you beat the average price. The regular Microsoft​ Excel Course offers a 32-hour deep dive into everything related to Excel and teaches you how to use it for your advantage. The Advanced version of the course helps you automate your spreadsheets and simplify large amounts of data with a ​16-hour dive into everything Excel.

The Microsoft​ PowerPoint Course helps you impress and engage your spectators with a lot of useful PowerPoint tips and tricks.

Finally, the Microsoft ​Outlook Course allows you to be more productive without losing time by understanding how to operate the amazing email platform.

Here is the virtual skull of the ancestor of all Homo sapiens

Despite an age of some 300,000 years, the oldest ancestor common to all Homo sapiens had a surprisingly modern skull, showing a modeling carried out by European paleoanthropologists.

The Homo sapiens emerged in Africa there are about 300 000 years, and its infancy remain mysterious to this day.

African fossils less than 500 000 years old are few, it lacks pieces to the puzzle of the history of our species.

In the present works, the Frenchman Aurélien Mounier, of the National Museum of Natural History of Paris, and the Briton Marta Mirazon Lahr, of the University of Cambridge, analyzed in detail 263 skulls old and current with the aim of making virtual fossils of missing elements.

We carried out a modeling to reconstruct possible morphologies to the ancestral population to all modern men.

Aurélien Mounier, paleoanthropologist at the National Museum of Natural History of Paris

Create a virtual fossil

There are currently only five skulls found in the Maghreb, East Africa and South Africa dating back to the period when Homo sapiens appeared in Africa.

To create a virtual fossil of the skull of the ancestor of Homo sapiens , the researchers modeled average individuals from 29 different populations: 21 modern living in different regions of the world and 8 fossil populations. They then went back up the evolutionary tree of Sapiens to deduce its morphological characters.

The features of this virtual fossil, whose theoretical age would be 300 000 years, appear relatively modern. He owns :

a rounded cranial box;
a relatively high forehead;
slight orbital bulges;
a face slightly projected forward.

Basically, its morphology is close to some fossils dating back to only 100,000 years ago.

Separate populations in Africa have helped to form the ancestral population of our species.

Aurélien Mounier

According to the authors of this work, published in the journal Nature Communications (New Window) , Homo sapiens was born from the hybridization of populations in southern and eastern Africa.

North African populations would have mixed with Neanderthals as a result of migrations to Europe, contributing less to our species.

These conclusions bring to the fore, once again, the hypothesis of a linear human evolution whose cradle would be East Africa.

They support the hypothesis, established by other researchers on the basis of genetic analyzes, that following a first exit from Africa which left traces only in Oceania, a second migration would have allowed to Homo sapiens successively populate Europe, Asia and America.

Complete Evaluation Of The Endpoint Security Market

Recently, a complex research study on Endpoint Security market has been published on MarketStudyReport.com. The paper offers precious information about the development of the market, regarding size and growing trends over the forecast timeline. Key values are analyzed in terms of driving factors, growth strategies, and demand landscape.

The report includes a deep evaluation of the industry, containing a basic overview of the Endpoint Security market. Even more, the study offers a summary of important data about the regional scope of the industry.

According to the study, the companies Symantec Corporation, Intel Security (McAfee), Trend Micro Incorporated, AVG Technologies, Sophos Ltd, Kaspersky Labs, F-Secure, Eset, Panda Security, and Bitdefender are included in the competitive grounds of the Endpoint Security market.

The industry is classified in several categories, including Anti-Virus, Antispyware/Antimalware, Firewall, Endpoint Device Control, Intrusion Prevention, and Endpoint Application Control.

Details regarding the market share accrued by each product type segment, the remuneration they hold in the industry, and the production growth information have been enlisted in the report.

Other crucial details provided are the market concentration rate and raw material production, which are both important aspects of the industry. A list of the latest price trends is also included, alongside a complex evaluation of marketing strategies, positioning, and development.

Even more, the article presents information about the suppliers and distributors, manufacturing cost structure and downstream buyers.

If you want to get a closer look at the report, you can do so by following this link: https://www.marketstudyreport.com/reports/global-endpoint-security-market-size-status-and-forecast-2019-2025.

Google Pixel 4 News and Rumors – General Build and Price

There are a lot of expectations with the upcoming flagship smartphone from Google. People are saying the Pixel 4 will really break down the walls of how a phone operates. But despite the glowing prediction, there is no evidence to confirm whether the Pixel 4 will stand out from the crowd or not. Not to mention if it will change the smartphone game as some say.

Pixel 4 release date

The Samsung S lineup has seen a lot of activity compared to the Pixel devices. October is the likely month for the Pixel 4 showcase and release. We base this on the noise we have heard about the phone’s development as well as it lining up with previous Pixel releases in the same month.

Pixel 4 general build

  • Increased screen sizes
  • Two-tone rear paint job
  • Decrease in bezel size
  • Dual front camera
  • Single rear-mounted camera
  • Software improvements for the cameras
  • Increase in RAM and storage
  • Lack of a 3.5 mm headphone jack
  • Lack of a micro SD card slot
  • Qualcomm Snapdragon 855 CPU
  • Android 10

Pixel 4 essentials

Price. There haven’t been any leaks concerning the price of the Pixel 4 so far. The issue is that manufacturers are cramming more expensive components into these devices and are also expecting higher profit margins. The Pixel 3 and 3 XL were launched with a price of $799 and $899 respectively. Expect the Pixel 4 and 4 XL to cost at least 100 or 200 more.

Design. Some design elements from the Galaxy S10 might be incorporated on the Pixel 4. The device may come with a deep notch and a punch-hole cutout for the front camera. Manufacturers are reducing the bezel size, so it would be kind of safe to expect that.

Reaching 100 percent screen to body ratio is the end goal for all phones. That seems to be the principal design orientation, probably the only one. The basic expectation from users is a 6.3-inch Super AMOLED Quad HD screen. It would be interesting to see if Samsung can top that.